According to information released by the Russian news agency TASS on December 30, 2020, the Russian Navy has successfully completed testing of the Tsirkon hypersonic missile overshadowing the completion of acceptance testing of the anti-submarine missile complex Otvet. Technical documentation is being finalized for the complex to be officially accepted into service by the Russian Navy.
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The Russian Navy frigate Admiral Kasatonov of Project 22350 successfully completed acceptance testing of the Otvet missile complex. (Image source Russian Exercises Twitter)
The complex detects, classifies and destroys submarines or unmanned underwater vehicles at great distances. The last Vodopad RPK-6M anti-submarine complex was created in Soviet times and entered service in 1981. The Vodopad has an unusual trajectory. The guided anti-submarine missile sails underwater like an ordinary torpedo for some time after launch. The solid fuel jet engine then starts to launch the missile at a distance of 50 km. The warhead comprising a depth bomb or a small electric torpedo of 400 mm UMGT-1 is then released on a parachute.
In the 1990s, Soviet designers decided to exclude the underwater phase of a new anti-submarine missile after launch. The 91RE2 missile was designed for the export of the Club complex (Kalibr export option) and fired from a vertical universal launcher. The presence of various missiles made it possible to change the ammunition according to the missions and the situation.
A new complex of anti-submarine missiles became necessary, as the speed and maneuverability of nuclear and non-nuclear submarines increased and stealth characteristics improved. Otvet was designed.
Its test production started in 2019. In November 2020, the frigate Admiral Kasatonov of the 22350 project successfully completed the acceptance tests of the complex. Otvet includes on-board sonar, submersible helicopter sonar, 3S-14 vertical launcher, anti-submarine missile with 324mm MPT-1UM torpedoes, communications and launch readiness systems. Underwater targets can be detected by both sonars, as well as other warships and submarines, the Il-38 and Tu-142 anti-submarine planes.
Entering data and calculating the course takes just ten seconds. The missile is launched by a ballistic trajectory towards the target area. The two-stage solid-fuel missile is 7.65 meters long and the launch weight exceeds two tons. It has an inertial guidance system. Upon separation from the first stage, the second stage takes the missile along a guided path to the submarine area. The trajectory is adjusted, and the on-board inertial unit guides the missile to the point assigned by aerodynamic ailerons.
During the separation of the second stage, the MPT-1UM torpedo splashed a parachute, submerged and automatically searched for the target. It moves in a spiral without starting the engine, but with an acoustic warhead in operation. The engine starts when the target is detected. The torpedo approaches and destroys the submarine.
The 324mm MPT-1UM torpedo weighs 300kg. It is 3 meters long and the warhead weighs 60 kg. The maximum depth is 800 meters and the maximum speed is 50 knots. The range of the multi-channel warhead with spatial and temporal correlation of signals and adaptive advance angle is two thousand meters.
The duration of the Otvet mission is 1 to 2 minutes. The distance varies from 5 to 50 km. The maximum flight speed is Mach 2.5. Four missiles can simultaneously attack a submarine. The probability of destruction is 0.91 in the event of a rms guiding error of 300 to 500 meters.
Otvet will increase the anti-submarine capabilities of the Russian Navy. The main surface forces can be a multi-layered anti-submarine defense. In the nearby area, the Paket-NM anti-submarine complex fights submarines and torpedoes. Otvet is responsible for the distance of 5 to 50 km. The torpedoes and depth bombs of the Ka-27PL helicopters operate within a range of 100 km.
Otvet will be installed on Project 22350 frigates, Project 1155M upgraded anti-submarine ships, Project 20385 corvettes, Revised Project 11442M heavy nuclear cruiser Admiral Nakhimov.
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